We are glad issue is fixed, for future reference that may faced the same issue, checking disable theme styles on table option uses a html option called as shadow-root to block theme styles reaching table. Some cache plugins unfortunately only scan first level of DOM document and ignore shadow roots. In that case you have to add a rule for that plugins to ignore images inside table or uncheck our option.
Sorry to hear you are having this issue. In order to further investigate this issue can you please share a url for the live website where this table is in. If you don’t want to share the url here, you can send it to firstname.lastname@example.org.